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Alexander Gradsky

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Biography

Sergei Terekhov
Alexander Gradsky - Biography

Gradsky Alexander was born on November 3, 1949 in the city of Chelyabinsk region Kopeisk.

His father was by profession a mechanical engineer, mother - an actress of dramatic theater. At the time, she was invited to play at the Moscow Art Theatre, but she was forced to go along with her husband to the Urals, where he was assigned after graduation. In Kopeisk still remember the parents of Alexander, at the stand of the Palace of Culture there is mention of Tamara Pavlovna as a leader of the amateur theater, a few artists who later made a career

Family returned to Moscow in 1957. Alexander's father, Boris Abramovich Fradkin, worked in a factory, his mother managed the theatrical circles, and then a literary assistant at the magazine "Theatrical Life". Due to the excessive employment of the parents to the school, Alexander lived with his grandmother Maria Ivanovna Gradskaya in the suburbs, in the village Rastorguevo Butovo district.

In Moscow, the family - father, mother, grandmother (father's mother) and Sasha - a few years until the early death of his mother (in 1963) lived in the basement of the eight-meter at the corner of Frunze Embankment in " ; of "nine other families. From 1958 to 1965 Gradskij, at the insistence of the parents went to music school, violin (teacher - student E.F.Gnesinoy V.V.Sokolov). Just how good was the teacher, says the following fact: when Sokolov for some purely domestic reasons, was forced to move to less prestigious school of them. Dunaevsky, left behind nearly all of his "Gnessin" class. The boy loved music classes in school, but need many hours of home exercise depressed.

In secondary schools have developed relationships with the objects at once. All the mathematical disciplines, physics and chemistry Sasha did not like, but the history and literature at once began his element. He avidly read prose and poetry, and in the thirteen years he wrote his first poem. Early (at the time) became acquainted with Western music (E. Presley, B. Haley, E. Fitzgerald, L. Armstrong, F. Sinatra), in the Soviet stage preference for songs performed by M. Bernes, C. Shulzhenko, L. Ruslanova, was fond of classical singing (Caruso, Chaliapin, Gigli, Callas).

Sasha's uncle (mother's brother) worked in Moiseevskaya Ensemble (folk dance of the USSR), one of the few teams who are allowed to tour abroad, not only in socialist countries, but also in the major capitalist powers. Thus, the uncle was among those who were lucky enough to participate several times in the months of touring across America. When my uncle came back from abroad, he brought not only a foreign thing, but the plate with outlandish music, which in the Soviet Union had the opportunity to listen only to party officials and diplomatic personnel. At his uncle's collection was five or six (at the time - a rarity!) Records: Elvis Presley 57-year, Louis Armstrong, saxophonist Steve Getz album, some blues. So, thanks to a great uncle's plates and luxury "brand" stereo, Sasha is a 10 - 12 years had the opportunity to listen to the most modern concepts of world music. But he was a struggling musician who could assess the quality of sound and voice ... Alexander himself said that it was then received the first rock 'n' roll pulse had fallen on fertile ground - he was fascinated by the creativity of local artists such as Mark Bernes, Claudia Shulzhenko and Ruslanova. And another interesting fact: in the age of thirteen young Gradskij went into the studio "audio letters" on Gorky Street (now - Tver) and recorded the song "Tutti-Frutti" Little Richard. However, in terms of socialist luck Presley was not repeated, shellac, and flexible, according to Alexander, "is still lying around somewhere".

All this was reflected subsequently in writing and singing style. Already during his studies at the school Gradskij tries his hand at school parties, singing, accompanying himself on guitar and piano, played in the theater circle ...

At the end of 1963 appears in the Interclub Gradskij State University and sings with a group of Polish students, "Cockroaches" on a few concerts (two in the repertoire of blues and a rock 'n' roll, E. Presley). The first song, Alexander Gradskij performed in the "cockroaches" - A Twist Babajanyan "The best city in the world", and during a speech in the room turn off the microphone and the final song was performed without a "crazy" the admission of students.

1964 - while on the move in more or less a decent apartment and ... The Beatles! ...

It was then decided to become a musician, singer, guitarist, composer, poet, short - Alexander Gradsky ...

In 1965 A.Gradsky Turks and Michael organized a group called Slavs. Later they were joined by Victor Degtyarev (bass) and Vyacheslav Dontsov (drums). Two months later, Vadim Maslov (electronic organ). Slavs third on the establishment of the Soviet rock band (after the "Brothers" and "Falcon"), which became known and popular - has existed in this part is not more than a year. Repertoire consisted almost entirely of songs from "The Beatles" and "Rolling Stones". Alexander Gradsky decided that only the Russian language should be the basis for the future of his music and songs. Hence the creation of buffoon (1966), focused exclusively on the songs and own compositions and in Russian. In 1965, there is another significant event: Gradskij wrote one of his famous early songs "Blue Forest", which later became his trademark. At the same time he continues to work with the Degtyarev and Dontsov in a band called Scythians. Initially, this group is composed of Sergei Sapozhnikov (bass guitar), Yuri Malkov (drums) and Sergei Dyuzhikova (guitar), plus Gradskij. Landmarks - instrumental (big beat) music. After a couple of months, and Sapozhnikov Malkova change in Degtyarev and Dontsova, then, instead of Gradsky, Yuri comes shafts (later a member of the American group "Sasha and Jura"). Interestingly, after leaving AG Scythians of his relationship with Dontsov Degtyarev and did not stop, on the contrary, they formed a band called "Los Panchos" and until 1968 played at dances in clubs and schools in western hits.

First buffoon (except Alexander Gradsky) - is Vladimir Polonsky (drums), who later played in a long time, VIA Funny Guys, and Bujnov (piano), he also got to VIA Funny Guys, and then made a solo career. The uniqueness of this group consisted primarily in the fact that they "walked the paths to them are unknown to anyone." Gradskij defined the "purity" of the idea, but everything else was equal. And songs performed by A. Buynova ("Alyonushka" and "Grass-glaze"), and hits the bass player George Shakhnazarov ("Memoirs" and "Beaver"), later became part of. Immediately thereafter, A. Bujnov was drafted into the army and never returned to the group ...

Eternal lack of money for the purchase of equipment pushes the group of musicians to work in the Philharmonic. Gradskij accepts the offer then the young composer and pianist David Tukhmanov and leaves on short tours around the country, playing the guitar and vocals carefully not showing, so as not to "light up". Sometimes (without Tuhmanova) to join him Bujnov and Polonsky, sometimes they work in the travel and the "chesah", and AG "Wins" Moscow with Los Panchos, in 1968 Gradskij even gets a temporary job at the famous VIA "Electron", which replaces Valery Prikazchikova on lead guitar and not sing again ...

During these two or three years, he traveled nearly half the Union with a variety of repertoire with a variety of musicians and soloists, and almost never ever sang ... Only once, the roar of "stunned" the hall, he sang a recital instead of sick Philharmonic soloist, named after him ...

Such was the idea - to travel to earn money for equipment, then go to Moscow to prepare the repertoire and the "issue" Russian rock 'n' roll ...

1969 first-year revenues in A. Gradsky GMPI them. Gnessin School in the solo singing teacher to the LV Kotelnikova. Subsequently, he perfects his skills in the class N. Willow. The teacher of chamber music class - GB Orentlikher, in the opera class, working with such artists as SS Sakharov, ND Spiller and ML Meltzer. Gradskij starts parallel solo career, acting alone, with a guitar. By this time "Ballad of a poultry farm", «Spain» in the poems N. Aseev, "Song of fools" and a little rock opera "Boldly Buzzing Fly ".

begins a remarkable period when Gradskij, in fact, became one of the earliest experimenters in the rock with lyrics in Russian (and their own well-known poets.) He refers to Russian folklore.

in 1969. "Buffoon" are still three (AG plus Polonsky and Shakhnazarov), in 1970 they are joined by Alexander Lerman, an intellectual, a linguist and a professional musician, band leader, "Winds of Change" (later, together with N . Gross, works in the U.S. in the "Sasha and Yura," while teaching linguistics at American University), and instead of V. Polonsky, who crossed in the band "Jolly Fellows", comes a magnificent drummer Yuri Fokin (later moved to the U.S., one served in the Russian Orthodox Church vprihode near New York). This is a stellar group of "Skomorokhov." They are free to sing three or four songs of his own voice. Moscow conquered once and for all. Equal, as they say, no. Unfortunately, almost no record of that period did not survive ...

At the end of 1971 A. Lerman and J. Shakhnazarov (later founder of the "ARAX" Lenin Komsomol Theater, whose name is connected to all the subsequent musical success Lenkoma man, who was then the head of A. Pugacheva muzgruppy ) for ten days before the All-Union Festival in Gorky leave Gradsky and Fokine ...

Fokin leads to Gradsky Saulsky pianist Igor, the son of a famous composer and jazz musician, and the train Moscow - Gorky Gradskij teaches Igor playing bass guitar and the All-Union Festival of beat groups "Silver Strings" in Gorky, dividing the first place with Chelyabinsk "Ariel", "Buffoons" won six first prizes out of eight. And three of them - "the guitar", "a voice" and "for the song" - got a person Gradskij. All the previous seven years instead of twenty minutes, a fantastic stage show of Gorky Palace of Culture. After the festival the group from time to time, joined by flutist, pianist and vocalist Hleb May, after having made the author's career as a composer, and a great drummer from Yerevan, Armen Chaldranyan ...

Starts during the first experiments of audio. One of the judges of the contest Gorky musicologist Arkady Petrov, who works at the time the radio station "Youth", at your own risk, organizes, and studio recordings Gradsky "Skomorokhov" on the radio. Alexander Gradsky first of the Soviet rock musicians creates a cycle of songs based on poems of Burns and Shakespeare - a sort of encyclopedia of rock styles, from blues to rock 'n' roll (ten years later recorded on the plate).

There is definitely clear: "buffoon" is Alexander Gradsky. About it and about the group said, "The Voice of America" and Radio Moscow, his first songs heard on the entire Union.

Since 1972, the group becomes an individual (along with guitar, vocals, etc.) Gradsky tool for the approval of his musical and poetic ideas. The first recording in the studio Gradsky were the only and first of its kind of rock compositions in the USSR, studio recorded multichannel method, in which he acted as a multi-author of the music, some poetry, supervokalist, who carried out the first time in the USSR, the imposition of multiple chetyrehgolosiya, and a composition ("Only you believe me"), the first time since Paul McCartney, was recorded by them as a whole (the party of all instruments and voices) ... Also in 1972, at the suggestion Tuhmanova, he recorded two of his songs for the LP "What a wonderful world" ("Mona Lisa" and " I once was "), was first used in the Soviet Union with 16-channel devices.

In the same year the "buffoon" go on tour in Kuibyshev and Donetsk. At the same time in their composition, especially for the trip, there Bujnov A., Yu Shakhnazarov, G. May, drummer Boris Bogrychev ... At a concert in Kuibyshev was an incredible success - after the concert, the group went to the hotel, but within half an hour for the musicians ran Komsomol instructor and was horrified to said that the public is not at odds, is aggressive and needs to continue ... and the concert was continued until one o'clock ...

At the end of 1972 near Gradsky first on the scene, we see a bass guitarist Yuri Ivanov, who, almost to this day, is, to the extent necessary, in the "Skomorokhov».

In early 1973 Gradskij and Ivanov (GI Saulsky at that time engaged in a number of other projects, alternately playing with different musicians and groups, as well as Yuri Fokin) acted constantly together, changing drummers and inviting at different concerts that Fokine, the Chaldranian (currently Saulsky Igor lives in the U.S., making a fantastic career as a professional programmer, manager, composer, and later a businessman).

Leapfrog with the composition, given that the group (by conviction AG) shall consist of not more than 4 people, leads to a search, and then to an invitation to a group of new members, as it turned out, the permanent and forever true friends Gradsky Alexander, with whom they were written down all the main songs, songs, music for films, performances, vocal suite and much more ... An outstanding drummer, superdzhazmen and stylist Vladimir Vasilkov and one of the greatest saxophonists and flutists Union Sergey Zenko, along with Gradsky and Ivanov, were those "Skomorokhov," which we hear in the record and verify mastery of the whole group and individually.

In 1973 he published his first solo EP Alexander Gradsky with compositions "Spain", "Buffoons", "Blue Forest", "Friend collier" . In the same year, on one of the studio recordings, again organized by Arkadi Petrov, a prompt appears in the control of future films directed by Petrov "Romance for Lovers" Andron Mikhalkov-Konchalovsky. He immediately makes Gradsky offer to participate in the film, first as a singer, songwriter, and then, of poetry and the music ...

Unprecedented at the time the case of 23-year-old composer (not a member of the Composers' Union!) receives an order for the music for 2-serial music movie of one of the most famous and talented directors of the country ...

Picture appeared on the screens of the Union in 1974, in the same year - the first LP Alexander Gradsky with music from the "Romance ...", for which the "Billboard" (International Music superzhurnal) awards grad title "Star of the year - 1974" for "outstanding contribution to world music" (quote).

In the same year Gradskij receives diploma from the Institute. Gnessin as "opera and concert and chamber singer" (quote). In the same year became a laureate of the international song contest "Bratislava Lyre».

Career AG unfolds at breakneck speed. He gets the opportunity to tour the country, with its concerts are held in overcrowded rooms with fabulous frenzy of the public.

In huge palaces of sports, he worked for three or four two-hour solo concert in the day, shocking the audience trehoktavnym range of voice, quite unusual for that time repertoire, tough hard rock accompaniment (in those cases when it group of "buffoon"), an unusual style of acting, etc. All this work is organized through the Philharmonic, and the work appears Gradsky "print" official art, ie, Rock music can be formally resolved. Few people remember that the AG "Broke" this insurmountable wall first, and after him, in the resulting "hole", rushed all the other rockers ...

In 1974 Gradskij finalizing a cycle of songs "Reflections of a clown".

In 1975 he was working (in the footsteps of "Romance...") on several films, do not forget about the records, even participating in the projects of other authors (G. Gladkov, V. Terletskiy, E . Kolmanovskaya, M. Fradkin, M. Minkov, etc.). At the same time he entered the Moscow Conservatory in the composition class, TN Khrennikov and ... writes "We Were Young" Pahmutowa N. Dobronravova (you know the result). By the way, this song is performed by Gradsky the only one that was "spun" TV and Radio. All the rest of his work to this day "clamped" in spite of any changes in politics and everyday life ...

In 1976 Gradskij composes and writes the first part of the suite "Russian songs", and in 1978, on the advice of A. Petrov - the second part. "Russian songs" first rock album in the USSR (published in 1980) became one of the most important works in the rock music of the time. Style of the album is defined as "vocal and instrumental suite".

Since that time, Gradskij "issues" one after the other studio work, vocal suite: "Utopia AG", "Satire", "Life itself", "Star Field", "Nostalgia", "Flute and Piano" - on the classic poem, "Concerto Suite", "Reflections jester" (a collection of Records 1971-1974 gg., in which proves the possibility of singing AG in Russian in various rock styles), "Monte Cristo", "Expedition "- in his poetry, opera "Stadium " (libretto by A. and Margaret Pushkina), the ballet "The Man" (libretto AG), designed for LP, but the output of the light is constantly delayed by the "obvious reasons"... "Record" here belongs to the suite, "Reflections of a clown" - despite on the yield of a single in 1978, the entire work was published after 16 (!) years after the recording.

AG continues touring in its repertoire there are songs active in his poems, sometimes satirical, sometimes simply dangerous to the regime ... He wrote several articles in defense of the genre of rock music, is actively arguing with reactionaries and ... gain a lot of enemies.

Gradskij begins teaching a few years in the Gnessin School - it produces a course, the next few years, already in the Gnessin Institute - another course released. Completed this phase of his work two years The management of the department as a professor of vocal RATA (GITIS). According to him, further instruction is only possible with only your own class, most likely, will have to create something like a school ...

1980 - the year of the death of Vladimir Vysotsky became a turning point for AG He completely transformed into the category of "Protestant," "mixing" on the fateful musical satire based on the tragic and dramatic lyrics ("Song about a friend", "Song on TV", "Monologue loaf for 28 cents of flour", "Story of a man who could not go on holiday to the Canary Islands", etc.). At first it did not "touch", then in 1983-1984. Some "trouble" happen, but it is always the voice and talent "are taken into account" ... Gradsky "creaking" take in the Composers' Union only in 1987, and the first trip abroad (USA) took place only in 1988, for a conference with a group of artists, film and politics. He sings brilliantly at the close of the conference Americans are satisfied with his fifteen-minute standing ovation ...

1987 work at the radio station "Youth". Alexander leads "Hit Parade Gradsky." It was there that first heard the song "Cinema", "Alice," DDT "cloud edge" Bashlacheva, "AIR", "Zoo," "The Secret". By definition, a composer, his hit parade was the confrontation, "official organ of boring".

Also in 1988 has dvadtsatipyatiminutnuyu ovation he hears in his address, and, of course, to the famous conductor, Yevgeny Svetlanov and partners around the stage, participants in the performance of the Bolshoi Theatre, "The Golden Cockerel" - one of the most difficult for the performance of Rimsky-Korsakov's operas. Party Astrologer and most difficult game of the world opera repertoire, AG "Clicks" like a nut ...

By this time, thanks to the support of Valery Suhorada, director of "Music", it produces light in almost all of his work as an LP, wrote the music for the films "Prisoner of If Castle" and "Art of Living in Odessa", bringing the number of such films with his music and songs to thirty Eight! At the same time it gradually reduces the touring completely switched to the creation in Moscow of modern music theater. With the support of the Government of Moscow, he gets the building in the heart of the city begins its reconstruction ...

Moscow theater and concert music association (MTKMO), under his leadership, has a number of complex projects, including: the organization of "crazy" solo concerts in Moscow (January 25, 1990, March 17, 1995 , and also the anniversary concert in 1999, 2004, 2009). with symphony orchestras and orchestras of Russian folk instruments, choirs, rock bands and their friends to "shop" public release "Collection AG", ie Thirteen CDs with the complete collection of works and recordings of Alexander Gradsky, the creation of two musical films "Anti-perestroika Blues" (1991), "Live in Russia" (1996) and "Live in Russia - 2" (1999), in the later on DVD.

First trip abroad, are making inroads. Gradskij working on joint projects and concerts with "whales" of Western music, as Liza Minnelli, Charles Aznavour, John Denver, Chris Kristofersson, Diane Warwick, Sammy Davis, Grateful grandfather, Cindy Peters, the U.S., Germany, Spain, Greece, Sweden . Finally, in 1990, after one of the joint with John Denver concerts in Japan, Gradskij gets a contract with VMI (VICTOR) - a leading Japanese firm. Produces under its brand name with two CDs (Metamorphoses and The Fruits From The Cemetery), and gives several concerts in Japan with a wide variety of repertoire, from his own songs in Russian and western hits and ending with classical Japanese romances ... Three of his ballets ("Man", "Rasputin" and "Jewish ballad" ;) puts Kiev Ballet Theatre (choreographer G. Kovtun), and the last two - Ice Ballet Theatre (artistic director I.Bobrin). All of these performances, "tinkering" in Europe and America with great success. Despite everything, he does not stop there and continued perseverance, both literally and figuratively, "construction" of musical theater.

There was and "recognition" - on the eve of the third millennium Gradskij is People's Artist of Russia and State Prize of Russia, as they say, the "totality" of merit ... The building of musical theater Gradsky reconstructed "with difficulty", but hope still remains, as well as continued concert activity. Recent work by Alexander Gradsky can safely be called the events in musical life. This «Reader» - CD-ROM track, reminiscent stylistically, "Reflections of a clown", ie attempted again to speak in Russian in the modern genre, and of course, the opera «The Master and Margarita» by M. Bulgakov with a unique composition of participants, work on which was more thirty years, in parallel with the "core" activities, which you can read above ... This opera, AG published in a luxurious design (in the form of an old book), included four discs and a full libretto - by the way, the book "Favorites" it is also printed - still awaits his biographer as two words to describe the impression of the opera is not possible ...

What now? And now, after the opera - the new "social sharpened" songs, love songs and performances, concerts, in which AG is once again going to the gym, demonstrates his brilliant voice, fantastic musicianship and artistry, in short, all what we know about him for a long time ...

As they say, God forbid ...


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